The sperm then move to the vas deferens, or sperm duct. The seminal vesicles and prostate gland produce a whitish fluid called seminal fluid, which mixes with sperm to form semen when a male is sexually stimulated. The penis, which usually hangs limp, becomes hard when a male is sexually excited. Tissues in the penis fill with blood and it becomes stiff and erect (an erection). The rigidity of the erect penis makes it easier to insert into the female's vagina during sexual intercourse. When the erect penis is stimulated, muscles around the reproductive organs contract and force the semen through the duct system and urethra. Semen is pushed out of the male's body through his urethra — this process is called ejaculation. Each time a guy ejaculates, it can contain up to 500 million sperm.
In the even smaller minority of cryptorchid infants who have other obvious birth defects of the genitalia, further testing is crucial and has a high likelihood of detecting an intersex condition or other anatomic anomalies. Ambiguity can indicate either impaired androgen synthesis or reduced sensitivity . The presence of a uterus by pelvic ultrasound suggests either persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (AMH deficiency or insensitivity) or a severely virilized genetic female with congenital adrenal hyperplasia . An unambiguous micropenis , especially accompanied by hypoglycemia or jaundice , suggests congenital hypopituitarism .
Each sperm produced by the testes takes about seventy-two days to mature and its maturity is overseen by a complex interaction of hormones. The scrotum has a built-in thermostat that keeps the testes and sperm at the correct temperature. It may be surprising that the testes should lie in such a vulnerable place outside the body, but it is too hot for them inside. Spermatogenesis requires a temperature that is three to five degrees Fahrenheit below body temperature. If it becomes too cool on the outside, the cremaster muscle will contract to bring the testes closer the body for warmth.