Using equipoise alone

The fact is that anabolic steroids do present various health risks – they are not without their faults and potential risks, as with anything. However, the context under which they are utilized presents a vast difference in how much of a risk is being taken. Responsible and judicious anabolic steroid use among healthy adult males is a significantly different situation in comparison to anabolic steroid use among children, teenagers, and females. Within the context of healthy adult male anabolic steroid use, the associated and proposed risks plummet by a massive degree, and from what we already know from studies referenced above, the average anabolic steroid user is in fact not teenagers and nor are they athletes, but are healthy adult males in the median age range of 25 – 35 years of age. Other more recent studies have also supported this fact among steroids statistics, where a 2006 study that surveyed 500 anabolic steroid users found that almost 80% of these users were not competitive athletes or bodybuilders but instead average adult physically active males [7] . Furthermore, the majority of anabolic steroid users are short-term users that do not engage in lifetime use (either in cycles or constant use), and that the rate of actual lifetime use among anabolic steroid users was found to be % for males, and % for females5. What this means is that only % and % of all male and female anabolic steroid users respectively will engage in lifetime use (mostly via subsequent cycles), while the rest will only utilize anabolic steroids once or a handful of times during their life.

On 26 February 1828 Palmerston delivered a speech in favour of Catholic Emancipation. He felt that it was unseemly to relieve the "imaginary grievances" of the Dissenters from the established church while at the same time "real afflictions pressed upon the Catholics" of Great Britain. [23] Palmerston also supported the campaign to pass the Reform Bill to extend the franchise to more men in Britain. [24] One of his biographers has stated that: "Like many Pittites, now labelled tories, he was a good whig at heart". [7] The Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829 finally passed Parliament in 1829 when Palmerston was in the opposition. [25] The Great Reform Act passed Parliament in 1832.

In a prospective non-randomized trial, Zähringer et al (2007) evaluated the patency of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) compared to bare-metal stents (BMS) in the treatment of atherosclerotic RAS.  A total of 105 consecutive symptomatic patients (53 men; mean age of years) with RAS were treated with either a bare-metal (n = 52) or a drug-eluting (n = 53) low-profile Palmaz-Genesis peripheral stent at 11 centers.  The primary endpoint was the angiographical result at 6 months measured with quantitative vessel analysis by an independent core laboratory.  Secondary endpoints were technical and procedural success, clinical patency [no target lesion re-vascularization (TLR)], BP and anti-hypertensive drug use, worsening of renal function, and no major adverse events at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months.  At 6 months, the overall in-stent diameter stenosis for BMS was % +/- % versus % +/- % for SES (p = ).  The binary re-stenosis rate was % for SES versus % for the BMS (p = ).  After 6 months and 1 year, TLR rate was % and %, respectively, in the BMS group versus % at both time points in the SES group (p = ).  This rate remained stable up to the 2-year follow-up; but did not reach statistical significance due to the small sample.  Even as early as 6 months, both types of stents significantly improved BP and reduced anti-hypertensive medication compared to baseline (p < ).  After 6 months, renal function worsened in % of the BMS patients and in % of the SES group.  The rate of major adverse events was % for the BMS group and % for the SES at 2 years (p = ).  The authors concluded that the angiographical outcome at 6 months did not show a significant difference between BMS and SES.  Renal artery stenting with both stents significantly improved BP.  They stated that future studies with a larger patient population and longer angiographical follow-up are needed to determine if there is a significant benefit of DES in treating ostial RAS.

Using equipoise alone

using equipoise alone


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