As if pregnancy wasn’t enough of a problem when it comes to women, weight gain and their thyroid, here’s yet another: Women have more thyroid problems than men simply because of breast tissue . Did you know that a woman’s breasts require almost as much iodine as the thyroid ?
So for women, iodine has to do double, or during pregnancy, even triple duty.
There’s even a condition named for this breast tissue iodine deficiency: Fibrocystic Breast Disease . Clinically, a woman with fibrocystic breast disease should be assumed to be thyroid deficient. It has also been reported that women with this specific iodine deficiency disease are also more likely to develop breast cancer than those that don’t.
Since men don’t have these problems, women are unfortunately the ones who are typically more prone to being iodine deficient.
Dr. Bjordal suggests that we graded evidence for acetaminophen too positively. In his letter, Dr. Bjordal describes one trial as evaluating acute low back pain when it actually evaluated chronic low back pain (9). Otherwise, our descriptions of the evidence are similar (Appendix Tables 10 and 11 (2)). We agree that our evidence ratings for acetaminophen were generous given some inconsistency among trials of acute low back pain, and lack of direct evidence and small benefits for chronic low back pain. We re-rated evidence for acetaminophen for acute low back pain fair quality with moderate benefits, and for chronic low back pain fair quality with small benefits (see Correction). Because of acetaminophen's favorable safety profile compared to other pharmacologic therapies, these changes do not change our recommendation to consider it as a first-line option for pharmacologic therapy (1).
Pain is generally an unpleasant feeling in response to an event that either damages or can potentially damage the body's tissues. There are four main steps in the process of feeling pain: transduction , transmission, perception , and modulation .  The nerve cells that detect pain have cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglia and fibers that transmit these signals to the spinal cord.  The process of pain sensation starts when the pain-causing event triggers the endings of appropriate sensory nerve cells . This type of cell converts the event into an electrical signal by transduction. Several different types of nerve fibers carry out the transmission of the electrical signal from the transducing cell to the posterior horn of spinal cord , from there to the brain stem , and then from the brain stem to the various parts of the brain such as the thalamus and the limbic system . In the brain, the pain signals are processed and given context in the process of pain perception . Through modulation, the brain can modify the sending of further nerve impulses by decreasing or increasing the release of neurotransmitters .