Previous reports have described circulating MDSCs in human cancers as monocytic (HLA-DR-CD14+) [ 26 ] or granulocytic (CD14-CD15+) [ 27 ]. We aimed to study all the subsets of circulating MDSCs using multicolour flow cytometric analysis of whole blood from patients with PC, CP, and HDs using all the previously mentioned markers. We defined granulocytic MDSC as Lin-HLA-DR-CD33+CD11b+CD15+ and monocytic MDSC as Lin-HLA-DR-CD14+. Representative Flow Cytometric data of a normal HD, one patient with CP, and one with PC are shown in Figure 1(a) . The frequency of circulating Lin-HLA-DR-CD33+CD11b+CD15+ subset was significantly higher in PC patients compared with HDs (% versus %; ) but was not statistically higher in comparison with CPs ( ) as shown in Figure 1(b) . In addition, there was no statistical difference in the levels of the Lin-HLA-DR-CD33+CD11b+CD15+ between HDs and CP patients. The frequency of Lin-HLA-DR-CD33+CD11b+CD15+ granulocytic subset was greater than monocytic Lin-HLA-DR-CD14+ in the peripheral blood of patients with PC (% versus %, ) and in those with CP (% versus %, ). However, we found no statistical difference in the frequency of circulating Lin-HLA-DR-CD14+ subset when comparing the three study groups. A more detailed description of the frequency of different MDSC subsets in peripheral blood of HDs, CP, and PC patients is shown in Table 2 . Of note, the peripheral blood levels of monocytic MDSCs (HLA-DR-CD14+) were lower in the blood of PC (%) group in comparison to HDs (%) and CP (%) groups, although this difference did not reach statistical significance.
The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza virus has caused a large outbreak, and resulted in major complications of severe pneumonia and acute encephalopathy in the pediatric population in Japan.
This study examined six patients with acute encephalopathy, 34 patients with severe pneumonia, five patients with both pneumonia and encephalopathy, and 46 patients without severe complications. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were examined in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with encephalopathy, and the levels of these cytokines, Cytochrome c, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were measured in the serum of all patients.
Patients with severe pneumonia had higher serum concentrations of 16 cytokines, including Th1 cytokines, Th2 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors, than patients with uncomplicated influenza. The distribution of 27 cytokines in the CSF did not parallel the serum levels in 11 patients with acute encephalopathy. HMGB1 concentrations in the serum were significantly higher in pneumonia patients with or without encephalopathy than in uncomplicated influenza patients, and were significantly associated with the upregulation of 10 cytokines.
Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines appear to be unique to influenza caused by 2009 H1N1 influenza virus and HMGB1 could play an important role in the pathogenesis of severe pneumonia. There appear to be different pathologic processes for encephalopathy and pneumonia.
Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The research team partnered with cancer registries in Missouri, Arkansas and Iowa to identify cases of endometrial cancer. The team enrolled 631 women with a history of endometrial cancer in the study and 879 women without a history of the cancer to serve as a control group. The participants were asked to complete a survey of more than 200 questions about risk factors potentially associated with endometrial cancer. Once they completed the questionnaire, participants were sent a kit to collect urine and saliva samples. Through tests conducted at the MU Research Reactor, the samples were analyzed for cadmium levels.