Each society develops a general perception of what an ideal female body shape would be like. These ideals are generally reflected in the art and literature produced by or for a society, as well as in popular media such as films and magazines. The ideal or preferred female body size and shape has varied over time and continues to vary among cultures;   but a preference for a small waist has remained fairly constant throughout history.  A low waist-hip ratio has often been seen as a sign of good health and reproductive potential. 
Women libido, also known as female sex drive, is defined as the urge among women to have sexual intercourse. Men normally experience this desire as well. However the female libido differs in a number of ways from the male libido. Research shows that females reach highest point of their libido at their thirties, unlike men, who reach their peak while teenagers. One’s libido can be affected by age, stress, pregnancy , illness among other things. The urge for an individual to have a sexual intercourse, can also be determined by three factors.
This is the eighth in this year’s series of posts by PhD students on the job market.
Condoms are the only well-established technology that protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Yet in 2015 alone, an estimated billion risky sex acts took place without condoms in Sub-Saharan Africa, leading to 910,000 new HIV infections ( UNAIDS, 2016a ). Women disproportionally bear the costs associated with risky sex: they are more vulnerable to HIV infection, and carry the burden of unwanted pregnancy ( UNAIDS, 2016b ). Yet despite women standing to benefit most from condom use, the decision to use a condom is joint, and both sexual partners must agree. Thus women with low bargaining power may struggle to convince their male partners to use condoms.