A word on alcohol content of the wine in ancient Egypt: Alcohol plays a useful role as an extraction solvent for, and carrier of, active compounds in herbal medicine. The intoxicating role is of course equally well recognized and this seems to have been a cherished side-effect to what the doctor ordered. Beer, not wine, was the national beverage in ancient Egypt, often used in religious ceremonies and as a meal-time beverage. Legend has it that Osiris, the god of the underworld, taught humans how to brew beer. Prepared from malted barley, a type of wheat called emmer and date juice, beer was counted as a staple food on the same level as bread. Brewing beer was of course also a way of preserving drinking water and keeping it from being infested with undesirable microorganisms. Those ancient Egyptians who could afford it often preferred to drink wine when they wanted to have a good old time. Almost four thousand years ago, an Egyptian teacher lamented that one of his students was leading a debauched and alcoholized life. “Oh if only you would recognize that wine is a horror, if only you would forget the chalice”.
Complementary analyses were performed to characterize the sweet passion fruit genotypes. Titratable acidity, expressed in g of citric acid/100 g, was determined by titration with NaOH ( N) up to pH with automatic titrator Metrohm 794 Basic Titrino, according to AOAC [ 19 ]; pH determination was performed by a potentiometric method according to AOAC [ 19 ] using automatic titrator Metrohm 794 Basic Titrino; total soluble solids were determined directly in the fruit pulp using digital refractometer Atago PR-101 (Atago Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). Results were expressed in °Brix, according to AOAC [ 19 ]. Analyses of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were determined by HPLC as described by Macrae [ 20 ]. For this, a Waters Alliance 2695 liquid chromatographer coupled to a Waters 2410 refractive index detector and amino column (High Performance Carbohydrate) with mm × 250 mm at 30°C were used. As mobile phase, 75% acetonitrile in Milli-Q water at a rate of mL/min was used and the injection volume was 20 µ L.